Monday, July 20, 2020
Genetic Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder BPD Print Genetic Causes of Borderline Personality Disorder By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University. Learn about our editorial policy Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD Updated on September 20, 2019 Mixmike/Getty Images More in BPD Diagnosis Treatment Living With BPD Related Conditions Are you wondering about the genetic causes of borderline personality disorder? Youre not alone. Many people wonder why they or a loved one has borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unfortunately, there are no easy answers, but research is getting closer to understanding the causes of BPD. Genetics or Environmental Causes Studies of BPD in families show that first-degree relatives â" meaning siblings, children, or parents â" of people treated for BPD are ten times more likely to have been treated for BPD themselves than the relatives of people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. However, while this suggests that BPD runs in families, studies of this type do not tell us exactly how much of BPD is due to genetics. Thats because first-degree relatives share not just genes, but also environments in most situations. For example, siblings may be raised together by the same parents. This means that these studies may reflect, in part, any environmental causes of BPD as well. Twin Studies Show Genetics Play a Large Role in BPD A more direct, though still imperfect, way to study the influence of genes on BPD is to examine rates of BPD among identical versus fraternal twins. Identical twins have the exact same genetic makeup whereas fraternal twins only have similar genetic makeup, just like two regular siblings. There have been a few twin studies of BPD, which have shown that 42 to 69 percent of the variance in BPD is caused by genetics. This means that 58 to 31 percent of the variance in BPD is caused by other factors, such as the environment. This suggests that BPD is fairly strongly related to genetic causes. Yet, most likely an interaction of genes and environment leads to BPD in most people with the disorder. What the Genetic Factor Means What does this mean for you? If you have BPD, it means that it is not your fault. You probably have a genetic predisposition to develop the disorder. Perhaps you have also experienced a few of the environmental events that seem to be linked to BPD in some cases, such as being abused as a child or losing a loved one. You do not have BPD because you are âweakâ or âcanât handle things.â There is a reason why you experience the symptoms you do. If you have a first-degree relative with BPD, it means that you may have an increased chance of developing the disorder yourself. However, this by no means guarantees that you will develop BPD. In fact, chances are likely that you will not. Why Treatment Is Essential If youre concerned that youre showing signs of BPD, its important to get treatment early. This will reduce any risk factors and help alleviate your symptoms. Speak to your doctor about your symptoms, testing for a proper diagnosis, and treatment options. Borderline Personality Disorder Discussion Guide Get our printable guide to help you ask the right questions at your next doctors appointment. Download PDF If you are a parent and you have BPD, you may be concerned about whether your kids will have BPD too. While it is a possibility, know that even though genes are important, they are not the sole cause of BPD. There may be ways to ensure the environment you provide for your kids reduces their risk. Part of that is ensuring that you get treatment and that you stick with the treatment plan you and your doctor decide on. Psychotherapy may also be an option to help you learn effective parenting skills. The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs
Thursday, May 21, 2020
One of the long pondered debates among political philosophers concerns the state of nature concept underlying much of social contract theory, with the esoteric term being used to describe the hypothetical human condition which logically preceded the institution of organized government. Engaging in a rigorous deconstruction of this hypothetical condition, one defined by a societal structure in which mans rights are not protected by the power of the state, provided political philosophers like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke with ample opportunity to indulge their faculties for elevated thought, with Hobbess Leviathan and Lockes Second Treatise on Civil Government standing as enduring testaments to this philosophical conundrum. Both Hobbes and Locke applied clinical logic and objective analysis, diffused through their distinctly disparate worldviews, to elucidate stirring but separate visions of the state of nature and mans place within it. Whereas Hobbes grounded his writing on the state of nature in a pragmatic appraisal of humanitys craven nature, Locke viewed the notion as the embodiment of mans promise and potential. A critical analysis of the works of Hobbes and Locke can be used to refine ones own conception of the state of nature, because each philosopher offered a uniquely informed perspective on a query which is common to all of us. According to Gregory S. Kavkas comprehensive essay on Hobbes and the state of nature, entitled Hobbess War of All AgainstShow MoreRelatedJohn Locke: Founding Father of Modern Era Liberalism1444 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThomas Hobbes, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and John Locke are all great thinkers who were greatly influential in forming philosophies that would affect the future of politics. By analyzing each philosopherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology, we can identify which thinkerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory reflected modern era liberalism the most. For this paper I will be arguing that, John Locke provides a more compelling framework of modern era liberalism because of his perception of the state of nature, the social contract and the function of governmentRead MoreJohn Locke And Thomas Hobbes Compare And Contrast862 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Locke vs. Hobbes Compare and Contrast Essay During and after the English Revolution (1642-1688), different philosophers acted differently towards the revolution , based on their ideas and personal experiences. John Locke and Thomas Hobbes stood out to be the most intelligent thinkers who argued in opposite ways. On the contrary they were similar in their approach for the use of reason. They both represented a trend in the 17th and 18th centuries to use reason as a final judgement. By analyzingRead MoreJohn Locke versus Thomas Hobbes Essay1297 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfrozen in a single moment in time. Thomas Hobbes and John Lock were two English philosophers who observed tremendous changes in English politics between the years of 1640 and 1690. In closely examining the views of both of these philosophers in subject areas such as the nature of man in society, the relationship between a society and its government, and the affect that both philosophersÃ¢â¬â¢ novels had on the government, it can be concluded that both Hobbes and LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophies created prominentRead MoreEvolution and the Modern Social Contr act Theory : Essay Outline1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Emergence of the Modern Social Contract Theory Essay Outline POLS 14033 Ã¢â¬â Political Ideas and Ideologies The Emergence of the Modern Social Contract Theory Essay Question: Firstly, in this essay, we will describe and analyze the various concepts of the evolution and emergence of the modern social contract theory thru the analysis of several of its key political thinkers. We will provide a detailed review of the concepts that have developed and that were crucial for theRead MoreThe Social Contract: Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Social Contract The three philosophers, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were three key thinkers of political philosophy. The three men helped develop the social contract theory into what it is in this modern day and age. The social contract theory was the creation of Hobbes who created the idea of a social contract theory, which Locke and Rousseau built upon. Their ideas of the social contract were often influenced by the era in which they lived and social issues thatRead MoreThomas Hobbes And John Locke1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBy the second half of the 17th Century, England would experience one of the bloodiest conflicts in its history, ultimately serving to influence some of the most phenomenal political philosophers in Europe --Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke. England was in constant unrest, choosing new forms of government almost on a whim in desperate attempts to restore order in the Country. The English Civil War in 1642 etched a legacy of dread in the people of Engl and, and the war only appeared more disastrous andRead MoreEmpiricism Is The Theory That Experience1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshave developed two different ideas on what politics should be about and how a government should be ran: politics should be about making citizens more virtuous vs politics should be about the Ã¢â¬Å"basicsÃ¢â¬ like security and property rights. Throughout this paper, I will be analyzing these two different outlooks on politics and presenting a case for both. Thomas Hobbes believed that the government should essentially limit itself to the protection of property and persons. Hobbes thought that power derivedRead MorePolitical Authority : A Need For Authority1782 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesregardless, there is someone, or some group of persons that has formal authority which makes laws, enforces them and punishes those that do not abide. But where does it come from is the question. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Aristotle have theories and ideas that give us a clue. They present ideas concerning different forms of authority; how authority has evolved; and where it even started. And from this I determine that in order to find where political authority comes from you have to ask why weRead MoreThomas Hobbes And John Locke s Political Theories Essay2061 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAnalyzing Thomas Hobbes and John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s Political Theories and Justifying if these Governmental Officials Have Legitimate Reason To Hold Secrets from the Public Systems of government across the globe are utilized to various extents. Similarly to John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of government, the United States stands by a system of representative democracy. This means that our government highly values that the people of a society hold the power of where the direction of their state goes through electing officialsRead MoreEssay Human Nature And The Declaration Of Independence1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Human Nature and the Declaration of Independence nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; I would like to show that the view of human nature that is shown in The Declaration of Independence is taken more from the Bible and that that view is in disagreement with two of the three esays given in class. The Biblical perspective of man is that he was created by a divine Creator with a specific plan in mind and made in the image of his Creator. Men are entitled to the pursuit of happiness but also required
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. Discuss why humans did not evolve with one central repository of DNA, but rather it is replicated throughout the body? Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): It is helical double stranded nucleic acid made of complementary purine and pyramidines supported by deoxy ribose sugars and phospodiester structures. (5 Prime to 3 prime). Eukaryotic DNA material. Ribonucleic acid (RNA): It is a single nucleic acid supported by adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil supported by ribose sugars. mRNA, rRNA and tRNA. Double standed RNA Viruses are also with RNA as genetic material a) Makes a complementary strand of RNA ---------gt; primase Primase is an RNA polymerase that reads DNA and synthesize complememntary RNA strandÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The four bases found in DNA are adenine (abbreviated A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). A fifth pyrimidine base, called uracil (U), usually takes the place of thymine in RNA and differs from thymine by lacking a methyl group on its ring. If we only had one central repository of DNA, it would take a long time for a protein to be made. Wed have to make it far in advance of needing it, so we wouldnt be able to quickly respond to new situations. Imagine if you were out hunting, and suddenly, a wolf appeared at your side. If you were slow at making proteins because you had one central repository of DNA, the wolf would probably get to you before you could respond safely. Also, regulation of proteins occurs at the level of DNA as well as on other levels. In some cells, certain sections of DNA are bundled tight in a mass of proteins, in such a way that no RNA (and thus no protein) can be made from them. This turns off those genes. In other sections, only a few proteins might be keeping the DNA turned off, so that it could quickly be unravelled and used to make proteins. This decreases the chance of harmful mutations killing the entire body, as well. Right now, you have redundancy--many copies of heart cells, each with a full set of DNA. Now imagine that something goes wrong with one of those cells. It can safely suicide, and the other cells will replace it. If we had one central set of DNA, if anything ever went wrongShow MoreRelatedCh. 12 13 Dna Protein Synthesis Project. By Anthony1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCh. 12 13 DNA Protein Synthesis Project By Anthony Li, Connor Farrell, John Koutsonikolis, and Tristan Funicelli (Tristan) # Describe the contributions of each of the following to the discovery of the structure of DNA - 1) Watson and Crick: Used Rosalind FranklinÃ¢â¬â¢s x-rays of DNA to conclude that DNA took the shape of a double helix. 2) Frederick Miescher: Used pus from infections to isolate nuclein. He found that nuclein had a unique ratio of phosphorous to nitrogen. 3) Oswald Avery: TestedRead MoreThe Theories Of Virus Origin1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespieces of DNA or RNA progressively picked up additions, forming infectious agents. The existence and behavior of retrotransposons is the main evidence and support for this theory. Retrotransposons are genes that use RNA intermediates to move along the genome. For now retrotransposons are confined to the boundaries of the cell and assist with evolution. The theory compares retrotransposons with the retroviruses, which is the family of the HIV virus. To understand the theory we must compare the two.Read MoreComparing Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells891 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1. Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Be sure to address cell structure, replication (including DNA replication) and gene expression. The cell structure of prokaryotic organisms is small, only about 1-10 microns in length, and they are also single celled. Prokaryotes contain circular DNA which is held in the nucleoid because they lack a nucleus. The specific organisms that have circular DNA are: mitochondrial, bacterial (eubacteria), and Archaea (Methanobacteria, HalobacteriaRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Cells1572 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOxford Dictionaries is a cell in which DNA is arranged in chromosomes that are Ã¢â¬Å"contained within a distinct nucleusÃ¢â¬ . The name prokaryotes is also defined by the Oxford dictionary as an organism that does not contain a Ã¢â¬Ëdistinct nucleus with a membraneÃ¢â¬â¢. These two terms highlighted a very important difference between the two cells; eukaryotic cells had a true nucleus surrounded by a membrane but the prokaryotes did not. The following essay seeks to compare and contrast typical prokaryotic cells to typicalRead More Co mparison of Genetic Information In Eukaryotes And Prokaryotes1567 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesnucleus, and also Ã¢â¬ËproÃ¢â¬â¢ means Ã¢â¬ËabsenceÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËeuÃ¢â¬â¢ means Ã¢â¬ËpresenceÃ¢â¬â¢. Therefore the words prokaryote and eukaryote reflect upon the individual cell organization. In contrast, the both organizations show discrepancies as well as similarities which ultimately make them unique to one and other. The aim of this essay is to compare and contrast the genomes in eukaryotes and prokaryotes according to the perspective of Cell biology (The science that studies about cells). This comparison is conducted onRead MoreFall 2016 : Biol 105 Exam 4 Essay Questions Essay966 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresponsible for carrying hereditable information: DNA or proteins. Explain how the Hershey and Chase experiment in 1952 determined that DNA was indeed the molecule. (4 points) There was some skepticism after Oswald Avery and partners claimed to discover that the transforming substance observed in Frederick GriffithÃ¢â¬â¢s experiment was DNA. To prove this theory, they created an experiment where they used sulfur to trace protein and phosphorus to trace DNA in infected cells to see which molecule would enterRead MoreThe Science Framework For Biology930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunit because it requires the least complex concept, DNA, to be taught first, and moves on to the most complex concept, the inheritance of genetic disorders. The first subunit concept taught will be Ã¢â¬Å"DNA;Ã¢â¬ however, I will administer a diagnostic pretest that will identify which concepts the students already know and any concepts that may need to be retaught before I begin this lesson as students should already have a basic understanding of DNA, cellular reproduction, and the process of mitosis andRead MoreAp Biology Practice Questions2588 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesdifferent chromosomes. Explain how these alleles are transmitted by the process of mitosis to daughter cells. After mitosis the parent cells genome is dividedninto two daughter cells. In most eukaryotes, the nuclear envelope that separates the DNA from the cytoplasm disassembles. The chromosomes align themselves in a line spanning the cell. As the cell elongates, corresponding sister chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends. A new nuclear envelope forms around the separated sister chromosomesRead MoreBiology Lab Analysis1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSMYD2 inhibitors. Experimental methods: Molecular analyses and RNA sequencing: We will constructed a total of four libraries for CML and MLL cell lines to reveal an overexpression of gene categories that involved in CML and MLL using RNA sequencing. We will compare between leukemia cells that have treated with one of SMYD2 inhibitor with untreated leukemia cell as a reference. 1. RNA Isolation: First we will extract the total RNA from CML and MLL cell lines using 10 mLTrizol reagent (Invitrogen)Read MoreGold Naotechnology Essay1473 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ ²-chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells as compared to AuNP without antibody conjugates (Pissuwan et al 2011). Thermal therapy with near-infrared (NIR) laser and AuNP has proven effective in breast cancer cell lines in vitro (Stuchinskaya et al 2011). Compare with existing materials there is a high percentage to achieve the positive results. The research will focus on the breast cancer treatment. In such a way, the literature review will evaluate the way in which AuNPs provide drug delivery for the breast
Market Equilibrating Process Paper Economics helps to understand how our efforts to produce goods and the products themselves are related, including the monetary aspects. On the national level this is macroeconomics and on a more personal level it is microeconomics. According to McConnell, Brue and Flynn Ã¢â¬Å"The market system permits consumers, resource suppliers, and businesses to pursue and further their self-interest. We will write a custom essay sample on Market Equilibrating Process Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now In competitive markets, prices adjust to the equilibrium level at which quantity demanded equals quantity supplied. The equilibrium price and quantity are those indicated by the intersection of the supply and demand curves for any product or resource. An increase in demand increases equilibrium price and quantity; a decrease in demand decreases equilibrium price and quantity. An increase in supply reduces equilibrium price but increases equilibrium quantity; a decrease in supply increases equilibrium price but reduces equilibrium quantity. Ã¢â¬ Microeconomics and Macroeconomics According to Investopedia Ã¢â¬Å"The field of economics is broken down into two distinct areas of study: microeconomics and macroeconomics.Microeconomics looks at the smaller picture and focuses more on basic theories of supply and demand and how individual businesses decide how much of something to produce and how much to charge for it. People who have any desire to start their own business or who want to learn the rationale behind the pricing of particular products and services would be more interested in this area. Ma croeconomics, on the other hand, looks at the big picture (hence Ã¢â¬Å"macroÃ¢â¬ ). It focuses on the national economy as a whole and provides a basic knowledge of how things work in the business world. Personal Economics According to www. bls. gov Ã¢â¬Å"Accountants and auditors help to ensure that firms are run efficiently, public records kept accurately, and taxes paid properly and on time. They analyze and communicate financial information for various entities such as companies, individual clients, and Federal, State, and local governments.Beyond carrying out the fundamental tasks of the occupationÃ¢â¬âproviding information to clients by preparing, analyzing, and verifying financial documentsÃ¢â¬âmany accountants also offer budget analysis, inancial and investment planning, information technology consulting, and limited legal services. Ã¢â¬ I like my career, I am Accountant and I have been married for 7 years with 2 kids, I see how economics impact commerce; from small businesses, like mini markets or restaurants, to big businesses like Wal-mart or Tar get, each price variation reflects in a home having less acquisition power of products or services, this is the main reason why studying economics is very important and useful to companies and to myself. According to McConnell, Brue and Flynn Ã¢â¬Å"When price changes, total revenue will change in the opposite direction if demand is price-elastic, in the same direction if demand is price-inelastic, and not at all if demand is unit-elastic. Price elasticity of demand is greater (a) the larger the number of substitutes available, (b) the higher the price of a product relative to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s budget; (c) the greater the extent to which the product is a luxury; and (d) the longer the time period involved. Summary Economics is useful tool for companies and people because we can understand our acquisition power in the market and the companies can make decisions about their future.References: McConnell, Brue and Flynn (2009). Economics: Problems and Policies (18th ed. ). McGraw-Hill http://www. investopedia. com/terms/m/microeconomics. asp, Retrieved April12, 2010. http://www. bls. gov, Retrieved April11, 2010. How to cite Market Equilibrating Process Paper, Essays
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Queen Ranavalona I Madagascar, the world's fourth largest Island situated in the Indian Ocean off Africa's southeast coast, is also called the Great Red Island because of the blood red color of its soil. It had many tribe kingdoms until the Merina monarchies united the Island before ultimately falling to European colonial rule. A very notable period in the Island's pre-colonial history is the reign of Queen Ranavalona I from 1826 to 1861. Need essay sample on "Queen Ranavalona I" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Undergraduates Very Often Tell EssayLab writers: How much do I have to pay someone to make my assignment today? Specialists suggest: If You Think About Someone To Write Your Paper - Essaylab The Right Place! Buy Essay Online Cheap Pay Someone To Write My Paper Cheap Top Essay Writing Cheapest Essay Writing Company Birth and Kinship Queen Ranavalona I Rabodoandrianampoinimerina (Ramavo) was born sometime between 1782 and 1790 into the Island's Menabe tribe. She was the eldest daughter of Andrian-Tsla-Manjaka and Rabodo Andrian-Tampo from tribal factions occupying the eastern portion of Madagascar (Ranavalona I, Wikipedia, 2006, 1). Ascent to the Throne Ranavalona was married almost as a child to King Ramada I. The King arranged for the marriage in accordance with his the intent of his father, King Andrianampoinimerina, to unite the tribes of Madagascar. Not much is known of her youth as the Queen, known also as Ranavalo-Manyka I, but an account of her physical description when she was already an adult is provided by George MacDonald Fraser in his novel Flashman's Lady: She might have been anywhere between forty and fifty, rather round-faced, with a small straight nose, a fine brow, and a short, broad-lipped; her skin was jet black and plump - and then you met her eyes, and in a sudden chill rush of fear realized that all you had heard was true, and the horrors you'd seen needed no further explanation. They were small and bright and evil as a snake's, unblinking, with a depth of cruelty and malice that was terrifying. - George MacDonald Fraser (Flashman's Lady as cited in Ranavalona 1, Wikipedia 2006, 1-3). Ranavalona ascended to the throne with the death of her husband in 1828. The Queen, said to have been in cahoots with Protestant English Missionaries, supposedly killed Ramada I by poisoning him. Since Ramada left no descendants, The English Protestants who were then her friends helped Ranavalona secure the throne. (Worldwide Guide, 2005, 1). Reign as Queen (1828 - 1861) Soon after becoming Queen, Ranavalona was able to extend her rule to cover the entire Island. To eliminate threats to her throne, she had most of her family relatives assassinated. The few extant British and French accounts of her reign focused on stories of the Queen's cruelty against the Christians and British tirades against the re-establishing of inland slavery. On the other, Malagasy historians generally short of deifies Ranavalona's successful repulsion of British and French colonial schemes (Kamhi, 2002, 4). Commanding an army of about 20,000 men, Queen Ranavalona I's rule was in essence reactionary to the pro-Western reign of her husband Ramada I. She distrusted foreigners and their foreign cultures and traditions and worked to eliminate their presence in Madagascar. Her husband had earlier welcomed outside influence and modernized Madagascar along European lines. Ramada was able extend his Merina kingdom to almost the whole of the Island by wisely playing off the opposing interests of Britain and France. The King also encouraged the Protestant missionaries to set up churches and schools and to introduce the technology of the printing press to Madagascar (Precolonial Era, US Library, 5 & 6). Initially, she expelled foreigners from the Island, including French and English consuls who later tried to exact revenge by attempting to depose her. In turn, Ranavalona I lashed back at the Europeans left in the Islands. (Worldwide Guide, 2002, 1). Queen Ranavalona, however, did not completely sever ties with the Europeans even as many of them fled the Island. The oligarchy, which lorded over the land and commerce during her reign, permitted a few Europeans to deal with commodities such as rice and cattle and French traders enjoyed monopoly in the slave trade by providing remunerations to the Queen (Precolonial Era, US Library). Persecution of Christians Before the reign of King Ramada I, Christian missionaries had conducted unsuccessful sporadic efforts to set up Catholic missions in the Island. With the reign of Ramada I, the original exponent of European modernization and culture, the missionaries were able to penetrate the Malagasy population, built churches, opened schools, even developed a written form of their language and started out the translation of the Bible. (Madagascar, SIM, 6-7). When Ranavalona, who didn't believe in Christianity and was suspicious of the White Europeans, came to power she at once expelled the missionaries and persecuted the believers left behind. The Queen forbade the Christian religion, charging among others that its followers despise the Malagasy gods/idols, spend all the time praying, only affirm and would not swear, make women practice chastity and observe as sacred the Sabbath day. As the Bible was banned, churches closed, baptisms prohibited and suspected Christian converts arrested, some 1,600 faithful pleaded guilty to Ranavalona's charges in 1835. Those who refused to renounce Christianity were either persecuted or killed. There was a renewed anti-Christian persecution in 1849 when 19 believers from influential families were condemned to die by being thrown off a high cliff. (Christian Martyrs, 4,5 & 8). Queen Ranavalona I has been largely regarded as a cruel persecutor of Christians because her initial efforts including the expulsion of the Christian missionaries was unable to eradicate the foreign-introduced religion. Under her reign, the horrific methods of persecution included being repeatedly thrown from hilltops; being forcibly dressed in bloodied animal skins for hunting dogs to chase them; being yoked together and left to die in the jungles, and being boiled to death in a pit at a bottom of the hill from where pots of boiling water are tipped to fill the pit. (Ranavalona I, Wikipedia, 2006, 4). Under Ranavalona I, hundreds of Christians were killed. Upon her death in 1861, and with the ascension of a Christian, Ranavalona II, to the throne, the Christian population in Madagascar grew from 37,000 to a quarter of a million within the same year (Christian Martyrs, P 14). Implementation of Hasina With her ascension to power, the people of Madagascar had to pay hasina, a tribute given to the sovereign leader as token of their allegiance. During the yearly Queen's bath, everyone had to pay the hasina and as well, to put out all fires at night so that only Ranavalonas fire in the palace remained lit (The oral and the Visual, p. 6). Independence for Madagascar Both colonial Britain and France, which had axes to grind, tried to remove her from power but failed. France's Louis Philippe had Frenchmen leave the Tidtinque post. The last unsuccessful effort against Queen Ranavalona I was made by Captain Romain-Desfosses who was only able to bombard Tamatave. (Worldwide Guide, 2005, 1). Ranavalo-Manyka I staunchly and ably fought for her reign and Madagascar's independence. She led her army, earlier modernized under Ramada I's association with the British, to victory against the combined fleet of French and British navy ships. (Kamhi, Madagascar and Me, 2002). Comparing Ranavalona I Comparing Queen Ranavalona with the previous Merina rulersher husband King Ramada I and King Andrianampoinimerinatheir reigns were all characterized by political effectiveness that led to the further expansion of their kingdoms until virtually the whole of Madagascar was united. The army under each reign was organized and served the interests of the kingdom well. Central power was secure and even expanding; social order then was easy to maintain as the subjects or Malagasy people generally accepted or at least offered no serious resistance to the rulers. In terms of foreign alliances, King Ramada I proved to be more open-minded and accepting of outside influence, spiritual matters included. Beyond that, he had the diplomatic wisdom and skill to use foreign interests in Madagascar to further strengthen and expand his kingdom. Queen Ranavalona I, for her part, only engaged in foreign alliances restricted to the economic realm. She was definitely intolerant of foreign cultural and religious influences undermining the native traditions of her people. This is where perhaps her greatest strength lies that more than makes up for what Europeans deem as the bloodthirsty character of her rule. The courage and the principle to resist colonial cultural onslaught is what largely shaped Queen Ranavalona I's reign and to a measured extent, the history of Madagascar. There are now in the Island state conscious revisionist efforts to present the nationalist rationale behind the Queen's anti-Christian acts. But more telling is the pro- or anti- Western divide in Malagasy consciousness as illustrated by the fierce pro-French and nationalist positions of the 2001 presidential hopefuls. (Alison, Perceptions, 2002, P 29-31) Madagascar Under Her and Now By 1896, Madagascar had her last Malagasy monarch, Queen Ranavalona III exiled by the French after Britain traded her for Zanzibar. (Madagascar: Erotic Tombs, 24). The country became a French colony until its independence in October 1958. Madagascar today is a largely politically and economically mismanaged country, being one of the poorest and most corrupt countries in the world. Its economy is mainly subsistence agriculture although tourism is booming and the Island state has significant mineral deposits and exotic wildlife resources. Madagascar's politics of the present largely contrasts with that under Queen Ranavalona I. Half a century after its independence, the modern country has suffered several political crises and upheavals, including the November 2006 coup against President Marc Ranavalonana; whereas, Ranavalona I wielded strong political control such that she managed to thwart European colonial offensive against her crown. The culture of the Malagasy peoples today, however, can be said to be attributable to the early 19th policies imposed by Queen Ranavalona I. Despite over 50 years of Western Christian rule, approximately half practices traditional religions, exceeding the 40 percent figure of self-professed Christians. The observance of the rich and various traditions of funeral and conception rites, folklore, wood and stone carvings, publicly rendered traditional performing arts and traditional celebrations is widespread today in the land. (Madagascar, Culture, 8-9). Ranavalona I is also directly credited by revisionist historians for the preservation of traditional poetry forms. (Ranavalona I, Wikipedia, 5). Madagascar's population as of 2005 is estimated to be over 18 1/2 million, up from the 1993 census of over 12 million. (Madagascar, Wikipedia, 2006, Table). For the larger part of the 20th century, though, Madagascar has had stable population growth. The first systematic census undertaken by the colonizers showed a 2.2 million population in 1900; it then increased from 7.6 million in 1975 up to the current figures. Population increase is attributed to the increasingly youthful and healthy composition of the people. (Country Profile, Culture, 1-2). DNA tests have shown that majority of the population has mixed Malay and African stock (Madagascar, Wikipedia, Demographics). Recent scholarship points to the normal migration trend, more than the slave trade engaged in during and before Queen Ranavalona's reign, as responsible for the Magalasys African descent. As of 1988, the foreign population of Madagascar totaled to around 70,000 Comorans, French, Indians and Chinese. (Country Profile, Culture, 1-5). Conclusion Concededly, Queen Ranavalona I ruled Malagasy with bloody iron hands. Terrible persecution, particularly of Christians and foreigners, was a hallmark of her reign. How to spell out her contributions, however, is a matter of interpretation and of viewpoint. From the points of view of Christians, British and French, her rule was a terrible period in the Island's historyan era of persecution and setbacks for the missionaries or their colonial interests. For the nationalist and traditional Malagasy, on the other, Queen Ranavalona I was a true-blue Malagasy heroine who stood up to assert and protect native traditions and sovereignty against European onslaught and domination. As Ranavalona I perceived, the dangers of European domination, she, in her own, albeit cruel way, staged what would be the last truly Malagasy stance before the European colonization of the Great Red Island. References Christian Martyrs in Madagascar 1828 - 1861. Retrieved 16 Dec. 2006 from Suffering website: http://www.suffering.net/madagas.htm. Country's Profile: Madagascar. Retrieved 16 Dec. 2006. Head of State of Madagascar/Madagasikare. Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership. Updated July 5, 2005. Retrieved 16 Dec. 2006 Kamhi, Alison. Madagascar and Me. (Sept.-Oct. 2002). Stanford Magazine. Retrieved 16 Dec.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The Movie Romero essays The movie Romero is about the life of Oscar Romero, an archbishop of El Salvador. The movie illustrates the hardships and the sacrifices that Oscar Romero has done in order to help and serve the underprivileged people of El Salvador. The story unfolds as the church begins to see the discrimination and the unfair treatment of the government to its people. The poor people of El Salvador get treated badly and are deprived of their rights as a person belonging to that country. There are a lot of things that had caught my attention while watching the movie. I think that the whole plot of the story has struck me as important and significant as a Catholic and as a human being. One of the events that have transpired in the movie that stuck me the most was how some important powerful figure in the church are willing to close their senses as to what is going on around them. They close to remain ignorant and numb to the cries and the pleas of the people so that the government would protect them at all cost. Another one is when the people are still faithful to their church even though they know that the government is against them. Through this their faith in God is tested. The church began to help the people get their freedom back from the abusive government run bay the military after a lot of innocent people have been killed for not following the rules that the government wants to implement because they know that it would only cause them more pain and more sufferings in the future. They want to end the dictatorial kind of government that rules over their country once and for all. At first archbishop Romero does not believe on how the military abuses the people, but after his friend father Rutilio Grande got assassinated, Romero began to have second thoughts and tried to defend and help lessen, if not stop the sufferings of the people under the military junta that is happening tin their country. The church and the governmen...
Monday, March 2, 2020
Spring Words With Activity Tips This comprehensive spring word list can be used to create many spring activities such as worksheets, writing prompts, word walls, word searches, journal writing, and much more. Scroll down to the bottom of the page for tips on how to use these spring words in your classroom. Spring Words A AllergiesAprilApril Fools Day B BaseballBasketBeesBikeBloomBloomingBlossomBlueBlue SkyBreezyBrightBriskBunnyButterflyBudsBuzzing C CaterpillarChickChirpingCinco De MayoClouds D DaffodilsDaisiesDandelions E Earth DayEasterEggs F Flowers G GaloshesGardenGolfGrassyGreenGrowing H HatHatch K Kite L LadybugLambLight colorsLighteningLily M MarchMayMay DayMay flowersMeltingMemorial DayMothers Day N NatureNest O Outdoors P PastelPedalPinkPlantPuddlesPurple R RainRainbowRain bootsRaincoatRobinRoller skates S SeasonsSeedsSidewalkShowersSkySlickerSpringtimeSpring breakSproutingSunnySunglassesSunshine T TadpoleTreesTulipsTwigs U Umbrella W WarmWatering canWeatherWetWindyWorms Y Yellow Activity Tips Here are ten ideas for using this Spring word list in your classroom: Create a colorful word wall of these Spring words for your young writers to view throughout the season.Have students use the Spring word list to create an acrostic poem.Create a Spring word scramble, where students must be detectives and try and unscramble each word from the list.Have students fold a piece of paper in half, then write each spring word on the list down the left-hand side of their paper. Next, have them draw a picture on the right-hand column, to accompany the word in the left-hand column.Have students create a graphic organizer where they must write down ten spring words that are not on the list.Students must choose ten words from the list, and use the word in a sentence.Students must choose five words from the list, and write five adjectives describing each word.From the list, students must write five Spring words under each of the following categories: Spring weather, Spring holidays, Spring outdoors, Spring Activities, and Spring clothing.Using the list, students m ust write down as many compound words as they can find. Have students create a story using as many words from the list as they can.